This crater on northern Elysium Planitia is a little more than twice the diameter of the famous Meteor Crater in Arizona, U.S.A. It formed by the impact and subsequent explosion of a meteorite. Picture from MOC in July 1998. Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems Topics: Craters, What -- Crater, Where -- Arizona Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/PIA02084.html
One of the great surprises of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission is the discovery at Meridiani Planum that the surface hematite signature observed from orbit is attributable largely to a surface enrichment of hematite-rich spherules, thought to be concretions, that have weathered out of rocks similar to the underlying sulfate-rich rock formation . A strong hematite signature has been observed by the Mini-TES  and by in-situ measurements of spherule-rich targets by the Mossbauer... Topics: CRATERS, SOILS, LANDING SITES, DUNES, ILLUMINATING, RIPPLES
'Controversy Over the Moon' (1971) 15m, dir. Charles L. Finance. This film describes the efforts of scientists to determine the composition of the moon and how it affects the solar system, what meteors aremade from and how craters are formed. The debate here, between geologists Jack Green, who advocates vulcanism, and Eugene M. Shoemaker, who advocates meteorite collision, is over what caused the Copernicus carter. Another in the AGI (American Geological Institute)'Eath Science' series of films... Topics: afana, moon, geology, meteors, craters, astrology, volcanoes
Naosuke Sekiguchi Catalogue of Central Peaks and Floor Objects of the Lunar Craters on the Visible Hemisphere University of Tokyo Press 1972 Acrobat 7 Pdf 4.63 Mb. Scanned by artmisa using Canon DR2580C + flatbed option Topics: Astronomy, Moon, Craters, Peaks, Domes, Mounds, Rilles
byGlavin, D. P.; Aubrey, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Botta, O.; Bada, J. L
The report by McKay et al. that the Martian meteorite ALH84001 contains evidence for life on Mars remains controversial. Of central importance is whether ALH84001 and other Antarctic Martian meteorites contain endogenous organic compounds. In any investigation of organic compounds possibly derived from Mars it is important to focus on compounds that play an essential role in biochemistry as we know it and that have properties such as chirality which can be used to distinguish between biotic... Topics: CRATERS, THICKNESS, TOPOGRAPHY, MARS SURFACE, COMPACTING, RIMS
There are few things more intriguing in high energy astrophysics than the study of the highest energy particles in the universe. Where and how these particles achieve their extreme energies is of interest not only to the astrophysicist but also to the particle physicist. At GeV and TeV energies the problem is manageable since the physics is known and the acceleration processes feasible. But the energy spectrum extends to 10(exp 20)Ev and there the problem of their origin is both more difficult... Topics: ARCHIPELAGOES, LAKE SUPERIOR, BRECCIA, CRATERS, METEORITE CRATERS, METAMORPHIC ROCKS, IGNEOUS...
In recent years, much effort has been spent examining the residual stress-strain states of advanced composites. Such examinations are motivated by a number of significant concerns that affect composite development, processing, and analysis. The room-temperature residual stress states incurred in many advanced composite systems are often quite large and can introduce damage even prior to the first external mechanical loading of the material. These stresses, which are induced during the cooldown... Topics: TITAN, SATELLITE SURFACES, ALBEDO, DICHOTOMIES, PHOTOMETRY, METEORITE CRATERS, INFRARED IMAGERY
ULTRASHORT-WAVE PROPAGATION IN THE VENUSIAN ATMOSPHERE IS INVESTIGATED IN TWO MODELS AS A FUNCTION OF THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC REFRACTIVE INDEX. THE VENUSIAN ATMOSPHERE IS FOUND TO BE TURBULENT TO AN ALTITUDE OF ABOUT 40 KM, RADIO WAVE ATTENUATION IN THE VENUSIAN ATMOSPHERE IS CAUSED MAINLY BY MOLECULAR ABSORPTION, AND REFRACTIVE EFFECTS ARE STRONG IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF VENUS. Topics: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, LUNAR SURFACE VEHICLES, LUNAR CRATERS, LUNAR TOPOGRAPHY, TECTONICS
A method for long-term storage of digitalized analog signals on simple audio tape recorders of the cassette type is described. It can be used for continuous analog signals, as they have high redundancy. On playback, recording errors can be detected and largely corrected. The readout of stored digital data can take place in digital form as well as in analog form after suitable conversion. At readout the faulty or erroneous data are marked and the number of errors counted. Topics: LUNAR GEOLOGY, LUNAR SURFACE, MAGMA, METEORITE CRATERS, PHOTOMAPS, TECTONICS, VOLCANOLOGY, LUNAR...
ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STRESSES IN AN INFINITE, ELASTIC, ORTHOTROPIC CYLINDER SUBJECTED TO AXISYMMETRIC HEATING IS CONSIDERED. EXACT FORMULAS WERE DERIVED FROM CONSTANT ELASTIC PARAMETERS AND FOR ELASTIC PARAMETERS VARYING ALONG THE RADIUS. A COMPUTATIONAL ALGORITHM IS GIVEN FOR A LAMINATED CYLINDER WITH AN ARBITRARY NUMBER OF LAYERS. A SYSTEM OF FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS SUITABLE FOR NUMERICAL INTEGRATION WAS OBTAINED. Topics: GLASS, METEORITE CRATERS, RUBIDIUM ISOTOPES, STRONTIUM ISOTOPES, TEKTITES, AFRICA
The designated landing site for the first Mars Exploration Rover mission is Gusev Crater, seen here in its geological context from NASA Viking images. Topics: Craters, What -- Mars Exploration Rover (MER), What -- Crater, What -- Viking Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/20030411a.html
This paper investigates the utility of the Hilbert-Huang transform for the analysis of aeroelastic flight data. It is well known that the classical Hilbert transform can be used for time-frequency analysis of functions or signals. Unfortunately, the Hilbert transform can only be effectively applied to an extremely small class of signals, namely those that are characterized by a single frequency component at any instant in time. The recently-developed Hilbert-Huang algorithm addresses the... Topics: MARS CRATERS, MARS SURFACE, GEOPHYSICS, PLANETARY GEOLOGY, EJECTA, ABSTRACTS, TECTONICS
A bearing for telescope mounts on the moon has to function in a cold dusty vacuum environment that impairs the operation of almost all traditional bearings, but it is a natural environment for bearings constructed out of magnets and high temperature superconductors. The challenge lies not so much in the weight of the telescope that has to be supported, but in the smoothness of forces required for precision positioning control over a long stretch of time without human intervention. In this... Topics: GEOCHEMISTRY, STRUCTURAL BASINS, LUNAR CRATERS, ANOMALIES, MOON, SPECTRA, DEPOSITS, SURVEYS
Astrogeologic studies for space flight program - lunar geology, crater investigations, space chemistry, petrography, and photometry Topics: CRATERS, PETROGRAPHY, PHOTOMETRY, SPACE FLIGHT, LUNAR CRATERS, LUNAR GEOLOGY, PETROGRAPHY,...
One of the earliest results of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) investigation shortly after the spacecraft began to orbit Mars in 1997 was the discovery of layered rock outcrops reaching deep down into the martian crust in the walls of the Valles Marineris. Since that time, thousands of MOC images have revealed layered rock in a variety of settings--crater floors, canyon interiors, and scarps exposed by faulting and pitting. This spectacular example taken by MOC in 2001... Topics: Craters, What -- Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter (MGS), What -- Surveyor, What -- Mars, What --... Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/PIA03177.html
byScott, A. G.; Williams, W. J. W.; Mazumder, M. K.; Biris, A.; Srirama, P. K
NASA missions to Mars confirm presence of surficial particles, as well as dramatic periods of aeolian reworking. Dust deposition on, or infiltration into, exploration equipment such as spacecraft, robotic explorers, solar panel power supplies, and even spacesuits, can pose significant problems such as diminished power collection, short circuits / discharges, and added weight. We report results conducted initially as a science fair project and a study now part of a first year University... Topics: MARS CRATERS, ALLUVIUM, DEPOSITION, GRAVITATION, GRAIN SIZE, SURVEYS, MARS 1 SPACECRAFT
byEdwards, Jack R.; Boles, John A.; Baurle, Robert A
This work presents results from large-eddy / Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (LES/RANS) simulations of the well-known Burrows-Kurkov supersonic reacting wall-jet experiment. Generally good agreement with experimental mole fraction, stagnation temperature, and Pitot pressure profiles is obtained for non-reactive mixing of the hydrogen jet with a non-vitiated air stream. A lifted flame, stabilized between 10 and 22 cm downstream of the hydrogen jet, is formed for hydrogen injected into a vitiated... Topics: DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS, HIGH RESOLUTION, IMAGE RESOLUTION, IMAGERY, METEORITE CRATERS, LUNAR...
The simulation employed all six rigid-body degrees of freedom and incorporated aerodynamic characteristics based on wind-tunnel data. The flight instrumentation included a localizer and a flight director which was used to capture and to maintain a two-segment glide slope. A closed-circuit television display of a STOLport provided visual cues during simulations of the approach and landing. The decoupled longitudinal controls used constant prefilter and feedback gains to provide steady-state... Topics: ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY, TOPOGRAPHY, VOLCANOLOGY, GEOLOGY, MARS SURFACE, PLANETARY MAPPING,...
This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software. Topics: GEOCHEMISTRY, ALPHA PARTICLES, MINERALOGY, X RAY SPECTROMETERS, MARS LANDING SITES, MARS CRATERS,...
This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers. Topics: IMPACT MELTS, GRAVITATION, ENTHALPY, PLANETARY SURFACES, THICKNESS, MELTING, CRATERS, DIAMETERS,...
RADIATION HAZARD IN SPACE TRAVEL AS IT HAS BEEN ESTIMATED BASED ON THE DATA OF SOVIET AND AMERICAN SPACEFLIGHTS AND TERRESTRIAL EXPERIMENTS IS DISCUSSED. CALCULATIONS, CHARTS AND GRAPHS ARE PROVIDED TO CLARIFY THE TEXT. MANY DATA ARE DRAWN FROM THE APOLLO PROJECTS. Topics: DESCENT TRAJECTORIES, MARS PROBES, U.S.S.R. SPACE PROGRAM, CRATERS, MARS ATMOSPHERE, MARS LANDING,...
byPravdivtseva, O. V.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A. P
Refractory inclusions, considered to be the oldest solids formed in the solar nebula. (4567.2 0.6 Ma) , are common in many carbonaceous and in some ordinary and enstatite chondrites. High-precision Pb- Pb ages for CAI s and chondrules (from different meteorites) suggested that chondrule formation appeared to have started about 2 Ma later than that of CAIs . However, recent 26Al/26Mg data suggest simultaneous formation of CAI s and chondrules in Allende . The I-Xe ages of CAI s in... Topics: METEORITE CRATERS, GEOMAGNETISM, EARTH GRAVITATION, ARCTIC REGIONS, GRAVITY ANOMALIES, MAGNETIC...
Aerodynamic characteristics of a model helicopter rotor hovering in the ground effect have been experimentally investigated. Measurements of the thrust, torque and induced velocity of the hovering rotor in the ground effect/and flow visualizations around the hovering rotor in the ground effect by the use of tuft. The qualitative results obtained are as follows: (1) when a hovering rotor in higher pitch angle gets near to the ground, there is a saturation in the thrust increase from the ground... Topics: CRATERS, GLASS, HYPERVELOCITY PROJECTILES, MORPHOLOGY, POLYSTYRENE, IMPACT DAMAGE, PARTICLE...
The project focused on ice-ocean model development and in particular on the assimilation of ice motion data and ice concentration data into both regional and global models. Many of the resulting publications below deal with improvements made in the physics treated by the model and the procedures for assimilating data. Several papers examine how the ability of the model to simulate the past behavior of the ice cover, especially to represent the ice thickness and ice deformation, is improved by... Topics: ALLUVIUM, PLANETARY GEOLOGY, SEDIMENTS, MARS SURFACE, LANDFORMS, DEBRIS, MARS CRATERS, GRAVITATION,...
byGounelle, M.; Engrand, C.; Chaussidon, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Maurette, M
Micrometeorites with sizes below 1 mm are collected in a diversity of environments such as deep-sea sediments and polar caps. Chemical, mineralogical and isotopic studies indicate that micrometeorites are closely related to primitive carbonaceous chondrites that amount to only approximately 2% of meteorite falls. While thousands of micrometeorites have been studied in detail, no micrometeorite has been found so far with an unambiguous achondritic composition and texture. One melted cosmic... Topics: ALLUVIUM, CRATERS, DEPOSITION, MARS SURFACE, ICE, WIND EFFECTS, WATER VAPOR, SURFACE VEHICLES,...
The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival.... Topics: MARS CRATERS, TEXTURES, DEPOSITS, GEOCHEMISTRY, EXPLOSIONS, HEMATITE, MORPHOLOGY, HALLEY'S COMET,...
The martian northern plains remain nearly as mysterious today as they seemed 25 years ago during the Viking missions, even though one of those spacecraft--the Viking 2 lander--went to the northern plains. The northern plains are a lowland with fewer impact craters exposed at the surface than the heavily cratered martian southern highlands. Normally, surfaces with fewer craters are considered younger (i.e., they have had less time to accumulate craters). Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter... Topics: Craters, What -- Viking 2 Lander, What -- Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter (MGS), What -- Surveyor,... Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/E19-81_82_n_plains.html
The reasearch focused on two areas; (a) the dynamics of forced turbulent flows and (b) time filtered Large Eddy Simulations (TLES). The dynamics of turbulent flows arising from external forcing of the turbulence are poorly understood. In particular, here are many unanswered questions relating the basic dynamical balances and the existence or nonexistence of statistical equilibrium of forced turbulent flows. This research used rapid distortion theory and direct numerical simulations to explore... Topics: REMOTE SENSING, PAYLOADS, OUTCROPS, INFRARED SPECTRA, CAMERAS, ROCKS, MINERALOGY, LITHOLOGY,...
DIVERSE GLASS PARTICLES ARE PRESENT IN LARGE NUMBERS IN THE LUNAR REGOLITH, CONTRIBUTE TO SEVERAL OF ITS SPECIFIC PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND THUS ARE INDICATORS OF SURFACE PROCESSES. UPON ANALYSIS, IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT THE CONDENSATIONAL MECHANISM DOES NOT APPRECIABLY CONTRIBUTE TO THE FORMATION OF FINE SPHERICAL REGOLITH PARTICLES. THE MAIN CAUSE OF THEIR FORMATION WAS FOUND TO BE THE VIBRATION AND BREAKDOWN OF LIQUID JETS DURING THE SPLASHING OF SURFACE MATERIAL AS A CONSEQUENCE OF... Topics: LUNAR EVOLUTION, VOLCANOLOGY, LUNAR MAPS, LUNAR SURFACE, STRATIGRAPHY, GEOMORPHOLOGY, LUNAR...